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The Bear Clan is the most important of the Hopi Indians, the totem of the Ouataouaks, with bear tribes in California, among the Huron, Iroquoi, and Ute of Colorado; the beaver is the totem of the Cayuse, Creek, Onondaga, Seneca, and Shuswop; the buffalo the totem of the Plains Indians such as Cree, Pawnee, Sioux, and the Mandan Okapi; and there are also deer tribes and clans (Cooper, 1995).Among the Australian Aborigines totemism is called Kobong and they have many totem clans including Dingo and Water-Hen.In essence totemism expresses “…an intimate relation which is supposed to exist between a group of kindred people on the one side and a species of natural or artificial objects on the other side, which objects are called the totems of the human group.” (Frazer, 1910).
The subject of totemism was introduced into English by trader J.
The tribe or clan therefore, in general, takes its name from the totem (Notes and Queries, 1901).
Tribesmen or clansmen thus “…hold themselves to be actually descended from material objects often the most diverse from human form…” (Hartland, 1891) because in the totemic system the mythic ancestor is known as the totem.
Totemism in Historical Perspective 4 (a) Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Hither Asia 4 (b) Ancient Greece, Rome and the Mediterranean 5. Totemism is an important subject in the reconstruction of the most recent of human history and the means “…by which humankind elevated itself out of animality.” (Reed, 1978).
Totemism in Global Perspective 5 (a) Australia 5 (b) The Americas 5 (c) Africa 5 (d) Asia and India 5 (e) Pacific and Indonesia 6. Morgan, Matriarchy, Mother Right and Exogamy 7 (a) Morgan, Engels and Social Evolution 7 (b) Matriarchy, Bachofen and Mother Right 7 (c) The Clan and Exogamy 8. True totemism is found only among Australian Aborigines, north and south Amerindians, in New Guinea, and parts of Africa and India (Cooper, 1992).